Font Sizes


Arrow styles available in Tikz (pgmanual.pdf)

triangle 90
triangle 45
angle 90
angle 60

Space in math

\; a thick space
\: a medium space
\, a thin space
\! a negative thin space


chap: chapter
sec: section
fig: figure
tab: table
eq: equation
lst: code listing
itm: enumerated list item

Line drawing, see pgfmanual.html.

Relative position of the object s

(s.north west)
(s.input 1)
(s.mid west) (s.text)
(s.north east)
(s.east) (s.output)
(s.mid)(s.mid east)
(s.base west)
(s.input 2) (s.base) (s.base east)
(s.south west) (s.south) (s.south east)

Examples for defining .styles

block_left/.style = {
  rectangle, draw=black, thick, fill=white, text width=16em,
  text ragged, minimum height=4em, inner sep=6pt
block_noborder/.style = {
  rectangle, draw=none,  thick, fill=none,  text width=18em,
  text centered, minimum height=1em
block_assign/.style = {
  rectangle, draw=black, thick, fill=white, text width=18em,
  text ragged, minimum height=3em, inner sep=6pt
block_lost/.style = {
  rectangle, draw=black, thick, fill=white, text width=16em,
  text ragged, minimum height=3em, inner sep=6pt

Learned from here

Use \mathbf in math mode. e.g.

\mu v.s. \mathbf\mu:

\[\mu \;\;\; \mathbf \mu\]

One drawback of \mathbf: Its not in italics.

a v.s. \mathbf a:

\[a \;\;\; \mathbf a\]

If you have the AMS math package (\usepackage{amssymb,amsmath}), \boldsymbol puts things in bold italics.

\mu v.s. \mathbf\mu v.s. \boldsymbol\mu

\[\mu \;\;\; \mathbf \mu \;\;\; \boldsymbol \mu\]

a v.s. \mathbf a versus \boldsymbol a:

\[a \;\;\; \mathbf a\;\;\; \boldsymbol a\]

Learned from here

LaTeX: \headheight is too small

You never know what you will meet when you use LaTeX, luckily, we can search Google or Yahoo to find the answer. However, it cannot help all the times. There is a problem you may come across using package fancyhdr:

Package Fancyhdr Warning: \headheight is too small (12.0pt): Make it at least 14.49998pt.

We now make it that large for the rest of the document. It was not easy to find the answer via either Google or Yahoo. Here is the solution. Insert


in the preamble, i.e. before \begin{document}.


  • \headheight defines the height of the header.
  • \setlength{len-cmd}{length}. The \setlength command is used to set the value of a length command, len-cmd, which is specified as the first argument. The length argument can be expressed in any terms of length LaTeX understands, i.e., inches (in), millimeters (mm), points (pt), etc.

Learned from here

How to Activate \subsubsubsection in LaTeX?

The equivalent to \subsubsubsection is \paragraph. To have that numbered simply use:



\section{} % level 1
\subsection{} % level 2
\subsubsection{} % level 3
\paragraph{} % level 4 - equivalent to subsubsubsection
\subparagraph{} % level 5

Another useful site on Displayed Math